Mobility segment kit
The mobility segment kit covers both personal vehicles and fleets. Personal vehicles are parked most of the time. Fleets are usually parked much less than personal vehicles (Table 2.6), but when an entire fleet is parked and plugged in, the battery capacity available to the power grid is much higher.
For drivers of personal vehicles, key strategies include innovations that make the payment process easy (such as a single bill for EV charging), avoid the upfront costs of EV chargers (such as EV charging as a service), or enable drivers to charge their cars in any suitable outlet, thus reducing range anxiety (such as portable charging stations).
For fleets, such as buses or delivery trucks, key innovations include wireless charging or overhead charging as alternatives to charging points. For long-distance vehicles, it will be critical to create clean energy corridors with charging infrastructure and renewable electricity.
New business models may emerge for all types of vehicles. For two- and three-wheelers, battery swapping is an interesting business model, since the batteries are relatively light and easy to handle. Battery swapping could also be automated for larger vehicles, making it possible for fleet managers to transition to e-mobility without changing the way they operate their fleets to accommodate long charging times.