Standardisation and interoperability

Overview of the status and impact of the innovation

Innovation 2


Standards and protocols are needed across the entire EV value chain to support two-way communication and interoperability at multiple levels: grid to charger, charger to vehicle, charging point operator to charger, among charging point operators, aggregator to grid, charging point operator to aggregator and aggregator to charger. Interoperability is especially important for commercial fleets. Software platforms for EV fleet charging must be compliant with the latest standards to support communication and meet business needs regardless of location or hardware. SAE International and the International Electrotechnical Commission have already developed some standards supporting multiple communication protocols between vehicles and charging stations. Those standards are advancing to accommodate new features and needs, for example, for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, smart charging and grid services. One challenge is the proprietary nature of some automakers’ telematics protocols for communicating information between vehicles and aggregators.


Standardisation and interoperability are crucial to ensure compatibility and communication flow among all types of charging stations, charging applications and hardware devices that EVs introduce into the system.

BOX 3.15 Smart charging standards

Important V1G/V2G smart charging standards include:

  • IEC 61851-24: Digital communication between a DC EV charging station and an EV
  • IEC 62909s: Grid-connected bidirectional converter
  • IEC 61850: Communication systems for distributed energy resources

In addition, ISO 15118-20 (V2G interface) is an international standard for EV-to-charger communication that is now under development by the International Electrotechnical Commission and the International Organization for Standardization. It would allow such innovative techniques as plug-and-charge, where charging and payment begin immediately when an EV is plugged into a charger, and smart bidirectional charge management, which can provide tremendous benefits for grid resilience and load management. Standard-compliant products are expected to become widely available in four to five years.

In 2022, the US government proposed to adopt ISO 15118 (Department of Transportation, 2021). Also in 2022, the CHAdeMO Association released a protocol for motorcycles and small vehicles (CHAdeMO, 2022b). A DC fast charging standard for e-bikes is also in development.