Overview of the status and impact of the innovation

Innovation 2


V2G capability makes it possible for electricity to flow from the grid to a vehicle and from the vehicle to the grid. Since the output of an EV battery is DC, an inverter is needed to transform the current to AC, which is used on the grid. The inverter can be built into the EV (V2G-AC) or the charging station (V2G-DC). V2G-DC has already been successfully commercialised in the United Kingdom, Denmark and Japan using the CHAdeMO standard (IEC 61851-23, -24). Some V2G-AC examples also exist, such as school bus projects in the United States and Europe (e.g. the WeDriveSolar project in Utrecht). V2G systems are already technically viable, but regulatory, business and operational challenges remain.

Both V2G-AC and V2G-DC technologies are needed, but they have different uses – for example, DC for behind-the-meter optimisation and AC for public chargers. DC is the more straightforward option today because there already is a valid ISO standard that ensures home safety.


V2G charging offers major benefits beyond just mobility; for example, it is a way to dampen variations in loads and generation on the grid, it provides flexibility and balancing services, and it gives EV owners a potential source of revenue that reduces their ownership costs.

BOX 3.7 V2G Demonstration Station in China

Beijing Zhongzai V2G Demonstration Station is the first commercially operated V2G station in China. The charging station allows official and private cars to discharge to supply the building loads during peak hours. The discharge revenue is RMB 0.7/kWh, and the station has a peak–valley charging price difference of about RMB 0.4/kWh. In the second half of 2020, the Zhongzai V2G station had a total of 1 228 intelligent charging and discharging orders, and the accumulated discharge income of all owners was about USD 2 180. By the beginning of 2021, the State Grid Electric Vehicle Company had built 42 V2G projects and 609 V2G interactive terminals in 15 provinces and cities in China, including Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai.

Source: (Zinc Finance, 2021).