V2G grid connection code

Overview of the status and impact of the innovation

Innovation 2


Since EVs can require charging power higher than that offered by normal household connections, grid codes will have to weigh requirements for EV charging. For example, EV charging facilities typically must meet the requirements applicable to generators exporting active power to the grid (IRENA, 2022b) In Europe, ENTSO-E concluded that the connection network codes covering EVs (V1Gs and V2Gs) fall within the scope of connection network codes and do not require special treatment. A V1G connection would fall under the demand connection code and a V2G would fall under the requirements for generators.


Defining V2G grid codes is important to allow EVs to connect easily to, and smartly exchange energy with, the grid. The codes allow smart and bidirectional charging, which helps control peak loads and provides many other grid benefits. Those benefits can reduce investments in the grid and in distribution transformers and cables by approximately 50% (ElaadNL-CHAdeMO, 2022c).

BOX 3.16 V2G grid connection codes in Germany, Australia and the United States

German rules specify that EV charging facilities must be able to ride through the same type of voltage dips as generators while in discharging (exporting) mode without disconnecting from the system (VDE FNN, 2019). Charging facilities with higher active power ratings (above 100 kW, like storage) must be equipped with bidirectional communication to enable remote control and monitoring.

Australia is revising its national standard, AS4777.2. The revised standard will require EV charging stations to meet the requirements for inverters, which include electrical safety, power quality, voltage support, demand-response modes, anti-islanding requirements and “fault ride-through” capabilities. An ongoing pilot project, called the REVs project, will validate a vehicle-to-grid charger against the AS4777 standard (Jones et al., 2021).

Similarly, the United States is working on regulations to support V2G and define the roles of EV batteries in the grid (such as storage or small generators). In California, revisions of Rule 21 cover flexible solar storage and V2G (California Public Utilities Commission, 2018).